Wednesday, 18 May 2016

Testing Techniques And Test Plans

Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification, designing and coding.


·         Testing is the process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error.
·         A good test case design is one that has a probability of finding a yet undiscovered error.
·         A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error.

These above objectives imply a dramatic change in view port. Testing cannot show the absence of defects, it can only show the software errors are present.


Any engineering product can be tested in one of two ways:

 Levels of testing
Client Needs
Acceptance Testing
System Testing
Integration Testing
Unit Testing

1. White Box Testing: This testing is also called as glass box testing. In this testing, by knowing the specified function that a product has been designed to perform, test can be conducted that demonstrates each function is fully operation at the same time searching for errors in each function. It is a test case design method that uses the control structure of the procedural design to derive test cases. Basis path testing is a white box testing. Basis Path Testing:
·         Flow graph notation
·         Cyclomatic Complexity
·         Deriving test cases
·         Graph matrices

Control Structure Testing:

·         Condition testing
·         Data flow testing
·         Loop testing
2. Black Box Testing: In this testing by knowing the internal operation of a product, tests can be conducted to ensure that “all gears mesh”, that is the internal operation performs according to specification and all internal components have been adequately exercised. It fundamentally focuses on the functional requirements of the software. The steps involved in black box test case design are:

·         Graph based testing methods
·         Equivalence partitioning
·         Boundary value analysis
·         Comparison testing


A software testing strategy provides a road map for the software developer. Testing is a set of activities that can be planned in advance and conducted systematically. For this reason a template for software testing a set of steps into which we can place specific test case design methods should be defined for software engineering process. Any software testing strategy should have the following characteristics:
1. Testing begins at the module level and works “outward” toward the integration of the entire computer based system.
2. Different testing techniques are appropriate at different points in time.
3. The developer of the software and an independent test group conducts testing.
4. Testing and Debugging are different activities but debugging must be accommodated in any testing strategy.


The Software Test Plan (STP) is designed to prescribe the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of all testing activities. The plan will identify items to be tested, the features to be tested, the types of testing to be performed, the personnel responsible for testing, the resources and schedule required to complete testing. The purpose of the software test plan is such as:
·         To achieve the correct code and ensure all Functional and Design
·         Requirements are implemented as specified in the documentation.
·         To provide a procedure for Unit and System Testing.

·         To identify the test methods for Unit and System Testing. 

Wednesday, 11 May 2016


Why to seek an opportunity,
When I'm an opportunity.
Why wait for the right time,
When every time is a right time.
Why to follow the path shown by others,
When I can create my own path.
But still the question is why?
And when will I find the answer
Why why....

Why to give up,
When I can!
Why to say impossible,
When it itself says that
"I'm possible".
Why to criticize others,
When there are many to do so.
But still the question is why?
And when will I find the answer?
Why why......

Why to cut others line,
When I can create my own!
Why to think of failure,
When I can succeed!
Why to regret any decision,
When it was mine!
But still the question is why?
And when will I find the answer
Why why......

Why, why and why
Still there remain many whys'
When I am the answer.
Now stop this why and when,
Just start finding the real you. 👍

                                                            -  Navtej Singh Bajwa

Monday, 2 May 2016

Feasibility Study

The detailed studies carried out to check the work ability of proposed system. A feasibility study is a test of system proposal regarding its work ability, impact on the organization, ability to meet user needs and effective use of resources. Thus during feasibility analysis for this project, following primary areas of interest were considered. Investigating the existing system in the area under investigation and generating ideas about a new system does this.
Technical Feasibility
This evaluation determines whether the technology needed for the proposed system is available or not.
• It will avoid multiple file handling
• Registration and query generation is very easy
• The new system provides full security of confidential data
Economical Feasibility
The system will be developed and operated in the existing hardware and software infrastructure. So there is no need for procuring additional hardware and software for the system. The proposed system will replace the hectic effort, cost and man power involved in the existing system. The employees will be trained in using and operating the system. Thus the project is economically feasible for the department.
Behavioral Feasibility

It can be operated by anyone since it provides an effective and user-friendly GUI. Therefore, it can be operated by anyone without requiring some special technical skills to operate. This mainly includes the users which are using this application. They can schedule their visit without wasting their precious time and also help the operation team in providing fast and effective service delivery. For the new users who are using the application for the first time it is very simple. They can easily understand it as it is very responsive. Generally all the fragments and the activities have been displayed for the easy preference of the user.

Scheduled Feasibility
The project is assigned to the intern as an internship exercise to complete within a fixed schedule of time. Each module of the system is designed following a specific module in order to assist the proper accomplishment of all requirements.

  • To complete the project as per schedule.
  • Create a truly collaborative work environment where visibility of the work involved in the project.
  • Communication breakdowns cause unclear goals and objectives.

Sunday, 1 May 2016

ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ / meri maa

ਅੱਜ ਫੇਰ ਯਾਦ ਤੇਰੀ ਮਮਤਾ ਦੀ ਆਈ ,
ਓਹ ਘੁੱਟ ਚੂਰੀ ਤੇਰੀ ਦੀ ਯਾਦ ਮੇਰੇ ਮੂਹ 'ਚ ਅੱਜ ਵੀ ਪਾਣੀ ਲਿਆਈ ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ।  
ਜਦ ਕਦੇ ਵੀ ਠੰਡ 'ਚ ਠ੍ਰਇਆ ਜਾਂ ਕਦੇ ਧੁੱ੫ 'ਚ ਸੀ ਸੜਿਆ,
ਓਦੋ ਯਾਦ ਤੇਰੀ ਬੁੱਕਲ
ਬੜੀ ਸਤਾਈ ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ। 

ਉਂਜ  ਤਾਂ ਸਾਲ ਕਈ ਹੋਗੇ ਸਾਨੂੰ ਵੱਖ ਰਿਹਣਦਿਆਂ ਨੂੰ,
ਪਰ ਤੂੰ ਇੱਕ ਪਲ ਨਾ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਭੁਲੱ ਪਾਈ ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ। 

ਪਰ ਮੈਨੂੰ ਯਾਦ ਆ ਕੇ ਜਦ ਵੀ ਆਪਾਂ ਮਿਲੇ,
ਮੈਂ ਘੱਟ - ਵੱਧ ਹੀ ਮਮਤਾ ਤੇਰੀ ਹੈ ਸਲਾਈ ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ। 

ਮੁਜ ਨਿਮਾਣੇ ਨੇ ਕਰੀਆਂ ਗ਼ਲਤੀਆਂ ਹਜ਼ਾਰ,
ਪਰ ਤੂੰ ਰੱਬ ਵਾਂਗ ਮੇਰੀ ਹਰ ਇੱਕ ਗ਼ਲਤੀ ਹੈ ਭੁਲਾਈ ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ। 
ਰੱਬ ਨਾ ਕਰੇ,
ਜੇਕਰ ਮੈਂ ਵੀ ਹੋਰਾਂ ਵਾਂਗ ਦੂਰ ਤੇਰੇ ਤੋਂ ਹੋਜਾਂ,
ਪਰ ਮੁਜ ਆਪ ਜਾਏ ਨੂੰ ਦੁਆਵਾਂ ਤੋਂ ਨਾ ਭੁਲਾਈਂ ਨੀ ਮਾਂ। 
ਵੱਖ ਆਪ ਤੋਂ ਹੋਵਨ ਨਾ ਦੇਵੀਂ,
'ਤੇ ਮੁਜ ਭਟਕਤੇ ਨੂੰ ਸਹੀ ਰਾਹ ਲਿਆਈਂ ਮੇਰੀ ਮਾਂ। 

ਆਖੀਰ 'ਚ ਇੱਕ ਹੀ ਗੱਲ ਆ ਕੇ
ਜੇ ਰੱਬ ਚਾਹਇਆ, ਤੇ ਤੇਰਾ ਜਾਇਆ 
ਪਹੁੰਚ ਨਵੀਆਂ ਬੁਲੰਦੀਆਂ ਪਾਇਆ ।
ਤੇ ਆਹਾ ਸਬ ਵੀ ਤਾਂ ਤੇਰੇ ਪੈਰੋਂ ਹੀ ਆਇਆ ,
ਤੇ ਆਹਾ ਸਬ ਵੀ ਤਾਂ ਤੇਰੇ ਪੈਰੋਂ ਹੀ ਆਇਆ।

                                                                      -  ਨਵਤੇਜ ਸਿੰਘ ਬਾਜਵਾ 

Tuesday, 26 April 2016

Android Studio

Android Studio is the official integrated development environment (IDE) for developing for the Android platform. It was announced on May 16, 2013 at the Google I/O conference. Android Studio is freely available under the Apache License 2.0.
Android Studio was in early access preview stage starting from version 0.1 in May 2013, then entered beta stage starting from version 0.8 which was released in June 2014. The first stable build was released in December 2014, starting from version 1.0.
Based on Jet Brains' IntelliJ IDEA software, Android Studio is designed specifically for Android development. It is available for download on Windows, Mac OS X and Linux, and replaced Eclipse Android Development Tools (ADT) as Google's primary IDE for native Android application development.
Developer                    -           Google
Stable Release             -           1.5.1
License                        -           Apache

Website                       - 

Friday, 22 April 2016


Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, Mac OS X, Android and iOS. It features calculation, graphing tools, pivot tables, and a macro programming language called Visual Basic for Applications. It has been a very widely applied spreadsheet for these platforms, especially since version 5 in 1993, and it has replaced Lotus 1-2-3 as the industry standard for spreadsheets. Excel forms part of Microsoft Office.

Microsoft Excel has the basic features of all spreadsheets, using a grid of cells arranged in numbered rows and letter-named columns to organize data manipulations like arithmetic operations. It has a battery of supplied functions to answer statistical, engineering and financial needs. In addition, it can display data as line graphs, histograms and charts, and with a very limited three-dimensional graphical display. It allows sectioning of data to view its dependencies on various factors for different perspectives (using pivot tables and the scenario manager). It has a programming aspect, Visual Basic for Applications, allowing the user to employ a wide variety of numerical methods, for example, for solving differential equations of mathematical physics, and then reporting the results back to the spreadsheet. It also has a variety of interactive features allowing user interfaces that can completely hide the spreadsheet from the user, so the spreadsheet presents itself as a so-called application, or decision support system (DSS), via a custom-designed user interface, for example, a stock analyzer, or in general, as a design tool that asks the user questions and provides answers and reports. In a more elaborate realization, an Excel application can automatically poll external databases and measuring instruments using an update schedule, analyze the results, make a Word report or PowerPoint slide show, and e-mail these presentations on a regular basis to a list of participants.

As Excel is a very vast tools. To learn more about Excel Follow the links:

Wednesday, 20 April 2016


Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable. It is defined by the W3C's XML 1.0 Specification and by several other related specifications, all of which are free open standards.
The design goals of XML emphasize simplicity, generality and usability across the Internet. It is a textual data format with strong support via Unicode for different human languages. Although the design of XML focuses on documents, it is widely used for the representation of arbitrary data structures such as those used in web services.
Several schema systems exist to aid in the definition of XML-based languages, while many application programming interfaces(APIs) have been developed to aid the processing of XML data.

To learn more about XML follow at: